Mining and processing of amber

Gathering of Baltic amber has its own history. The oldest method is considered to be “scoop”, when pieces of amber were caught with nets from the boats. Later, the “scoop” was replaced by the “abruption method”. This method is the abruption of amber from the shallow seafloor with sharp hook. In the 16th century people learned how to collect amber from the shoal wells and small pits, which used to be situated in the zone of near-shore. In the middle of the last century gathering of the industrial amber in the pits and levels was started in the region of Palmnicken town (currently Jantarnij) in Kaliningrad area. The cache of amber, which was gathered in the earth entrails, was found in 1876: 45kg of stone lay under a huge boulder. However, in 1922 because of difficulties the underground banks were removed from operation. They were replaced by the open collection in sand pits, which was started in 1912 in the northern part of Palmnicken town. Apparently the work of sand pits was successful, because there were stored about 3 centners of the stone in the storages, which were found in the region of Pillau town (now Baltiysk). Amber was collected in the ground also called “blue ground”, which gets into the composition of paleogene stratum.
The cover of seashore deposits has been processed with hidro-monitor and dredger. The monitor dispersed sediment with strong flush (those sediment cover stratum which produces natural amber). In this way the mixtures of water and thin coatings is formed, and it is called pulp (the soft). This pulp used to be frown away into the sea through the culvert of the dredger. Afterwards the powerful excavator used to scoop and gather cleansed “blue ground” in cone-shaped receptacles. The powerful stream of hidro-monitor used to wash out uncovering till the liquid squash used to consist. The squash used to be transmitted to the conversion factory through the culverts of the mechanism. Amber used to be shattered while washing the upper part of sediment of “blue ground” and removement of uncovering later transmitting it to the conversion factory through the culverts. 10% of amber is being lost during such operation.
Technological scheme of amber gathering in the seashore region is slightly different: the powerful excavator, which is marching around the sand pit, collects the “blue ground” after the removal of thin uncovering. The “blue ground” is being transfered to the conversion factory through the conveyor. The replacement of hidrotransportation system with conveyor significantly reduces the losses of amber.